Ion exchange equilibrium for three systems involving monovalent and divalent ions has been investigated over various temperatures (283, 298 and 313 K) using CMX cationic exchange membrane. All experiments were carried out at 0.1 mol/L. Ion exchange isotherms for the binary systems (Na+/K+), (Na+/Ca2+) and (K+/Ca2+) were established at temperatures ranging from 283 to 313 K. The obtained affinity order is: K+>Ca2+>Na+. Selectivity coefficients KK+2Na+, K2Na+Ca2+ and KCa2+2K+ were determined and found to increase with rise in temperature. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants Ki°j were calculated. Wilson and Debye–Hückel equations have been used to calculate activity coefficients in the membrane and solution, respectively. Standard free energy ΔGT°, standard enthalpy change ΔHT° and standard entropy change ΔST° were calculated. The values of ΔHT° were found to be 51.98 kJ/mol, 64.59 kJ/mol and 29.57 kJ/mol, respectively, for (Na+/K+), (Na+/Ca2+) and (K+/Ca2+) binary systems, which indicate that the ion exchange process between the CMX membrane and the studied binary systems is an endothermic process. ΔST° is found to be positive, it means that the increased randomness appeared on the membrane-solution interface during the ion exchange reaction. In addition, the standard free enthalpy change ΔGT° value for all systems are negative, which is an indication that the ion exchange equilibrium is spontaneous in standard conditions.
- affinity order
- binary isotherms
- CMX membrane
- selectivity coefficients
- thermodynamic parameter
- First received 12 January 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 20 April 2015.
- © IWA Publishing 2015