Sustainable water management must nowadays consider alternative water sources and the use of reclaimed water is a good candidate. Low pressure ceramic membrane filtration is an emerging option for safe water reclamation given its high mechanical and chemical robustness with safety and operational advantages. One-year pilot studies of hybrid coagulation–ceramic filtration were developed in Portugal in two wastewater treatment plants in Lisbon metropolitan area. The results obtained demonstrated the technology's effectiveness, reliability and efficiency towards water quality, with the hybrid process consistently producing water highly clarified (monthly median <0.1 NTU), bacteria-free and with reduced organic matter content, regardless of the strong and severe variations in its intake.
- hybrid coagulation–ceramic membrane filtration
- membrane pilot
- treated wastewater
- urban reuse
- water reclamation
- First received 3 December 2014.
- Accepted in revised form 18 February 2015.
- © IWA Publishing 2015