The key approach to manage and prevent potential hazards arising from specific contaminants in water networks is to consider water as the main product delivered. This new concept, addressed as water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP), has been further developed from hazard analysis of critical control points to illustrate the potential hazards which are the roots of hindering intra-facility water reuse strategies. For industrial sectors applying water reclamation and reuse schemes, it is paramount that the reclaimed water quality stays within the desired quality. The objective of WRAP is to establish a new methodology and knowledge, which will contribute to the sustainable development of industrial water management, and demonstrate its capabilities in identifying and addressing any potential hazards in the selected schemes adoption by the industries. A ‘what-if’ scenario was simulated using a refinery as a case study to show strategies on how to benefit reclaimed or reuse water based on reliable, applied and scientific research within the process integration area. In conclusion, the WRAP model will facilitate operators, consultants and decision makers to reuse water on a fit-for use basis whilst avoiding contaminant accumulation in the overall system and production of sub-quality products from inadequate processes after several reuses.
- quality control
- risk assessment
- water reuse
- First received 30 September 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 9 February 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016