Layered double hydroxide Zn/(Al + Fe) with a molar ratio of 3:(0.85 + 0.15), designated as ZAF-HT, was synthetized by co-precipitation. Its calcined product CZAF was obtained by heat treatment of ZAF-HT at 500°C. The calcined and uncalcined materials were used to remove the acid dyes indigo carmine (IC) and green bezanyl-F2B (F2B) from water in batch mode. The synthetized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The sorption kinetic data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorbed amounts of the calcined material were much larger than ZAF-HT. The maximum adsorption capacity of CZAF was found to be 617.3 mg g−1 for IC and 1,501.4 mg g−1 for F2B. The isotherms showed that the removal of IC and F2B by ZAF-HT and CZAF could be described by a Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. The negative values of standard free energy ΔG° indicate the spontaneity of sorption process. The reuse of CZAF was studied for both dyes and the calcined material showed a good stability for four thermal cycles.
- acid dyes
- layered double hydroxides
- mixed metal oxides
- First received 22 February 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 8 April 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016